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About The Book

Anna Procyk focuses on the nationality policy of the Volunteer Army and the Russian liberals who dominated its politics. Challenging the generally accepted view that the character of the White movement was primarily anti-Bolshevik or even restorationist, she shows how the concept of "one, indivisible Russia" was central to the Volunteer Army's ideology and identity and how it contributed to its failure.

Dr. Procyk also challenges the view that the Volunteer Army's generals were reactionary monarchists and that they were primarily responsible for the White movement's failure. She persuasively demonstrates that the ideology and political program of the Russian liberal intellectuals who dominated the Volunteer Army's Political Center reinforced Denikin's refusal to deal with the independent Ukrainian governments of 1918-19 and his hostility toward the idea of a Russo-Ukrainian federation and an anti-Bolshevik alliance. The Volunteer Army failed to defeat the Bolsheviks because it was unable and unwilling to come to terms with the Ukrainian question. At critical junctures during the Russian Civil War, its struggle against an independent Ukraine overshadowed its struggle against the Bolsheviks. 

Russian Nationalism and Ukraine revises our understanding of the White movement. It is a major contribution to Russian and Ukrainian historiography. See Russian Revolution of 1917, Ukrainian-Soviet War, 1917–21 and Free Cossacks in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine.

About The Author

Anna M. Procyk

Anna M. Procyk

Anna Procyk is associate professor of History, Kingsborough CC of the City University of New York. She is currently doing research on the influence of Giuseppe Mazzini in Eastern Europe. Her article on the role of the Polish émigrés as disseminators of Mazzini's ideas in Ukraine is due to appear in


  1. Review in The Ukrainian Review, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Autumn 1995), pp. 89-93
  2. A. Geifman's review in Choice, Vol. 33, No. 9 (May 1996)
  3. P. S. Pirie's review in The Slavonic Review, Vol. 74, No. 4 (October 1996), pp. 761-63
  4. David Saunders' review in the International History Review, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 (November 1996), pp. 925-28
  5. Rainer Lindner's review in Osteuropa, 47 (1997), h. 7, pp. 728-29 (in German)
  6. Mark Baker's review in the Journal of Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 22, Nos. 1-2 (Summer-Winter 1997), pp. 178-79
  7. W. Bruce Lincoln's review in American Historical Review, (October 1997), pp. 1192-93
  8. Andreas Kappeler's review in Zeitschrift fur Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung, 47 (1998), H.3, pp. 472-73 (in German)
  9. Rudolf A. Mark's review in Jahrbuecher fuer Geschichte Osteuropas, 46 (1998), H. 1, pp. 143-44 (in German)
  10. Rex A. Wade's review in the Canadian Slavonic Papers, Vol. XLI, No. 1 (March 1999), pp. 96-97

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