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About The Book

It is a little-known fact that during the First World War and in the immediate postwar period (1914–1920), Canadian Internment Operations imprisoned more than 8,000 individuals. The majority of those interned were civilian non-combatants, Ukrainians and other immigrants who had come to Canada from the Austro-Hungarian Empire to work in industry or to settle on western homesteads. Twenty-four receiving stations and internment camps were established across Canada.

A camp at Banff/Castle Mountain operated between 1915 and 1917. More than 600 internees were put to work on various projects in Rocky Mountain Park (now Banff National Park), which was being developed at that time as Canada's first national park. The diary of the Banff/Castle Mountain camp provides detailed insight into the practice of Canada's internment policy during the First World War and reveals a unique episode in the human history of Canada's national park system. Historical landmarks in Banff National Park such as the Bankhead Mine, the Tunnel Montain Road and Trans-Canada Highway, the Spray River Bridge, and the Banff Springs golf course were constructed, rebuilt, or extended by "Austro-Hungarian" civilian non-combatants interned at Banff/Castle Mountain. See Ukrainians and Alberta in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine.

About The Authors

Bohdan S. Kordan

Bohdan S. Kordan

Bohdan S. Kordan is professor and chair of the Department of Political Studies, St. Thomas More College, University of Saskatchewan. He has co-edited several documentary and essay collections on statecraft and ethnicity in Canada. Together with Lubomyr Y. Luciuk, he coauthored

Peter Melnycky

Peter Melnycky is a research historian with Historic Sites and Archives Service, Alberta Culture and Multiculturalism. He has written extensively on the history and material culture of the early Ukrainian settlement community in Canada. His publications include


  1. Louis A. Knafla's review in Canadian Book Review Annual, Vol. 17 (1991), p. 373
  2. Jonathan Swainger's review in Canadian Journal of Law and Society, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Spring 1993), pp. 271-275
  3. W. A. Waiser's review in The Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 74, No. 2 (June 1993), pp. 297-298
  4. David C. Jones' review in Historical Studies in Education, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Fall 1994), pp. 336-337
  5. Audrey Kobayashi's review in Journal of Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 16, Nos. 1-2 (Summer-Winter 1991), pp. 251-252

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